Scientific Investigation Chapter Quiz
1 / 15
Which of the following statements is a falsifiable hypothesis?
The correct answer is B. The hypothesis can be tested and either supported or shown false by experimental data. Choice A is incorrect because a falsifiable hypothesis must be able to be tested by any observer. Choice C cannot be tested because we do not know if dog's can express thoughts, so interpretations cannot be proved true or false. Choice D relies on an assumption for which there is no test.
2 / 15
Which of the following measurements incorporates a derived unit?
The correct answer is A. Density is derived from mass and volume. The other measurements are represented by base units of measurement.
3 / 15
What is the Kelvin equivalent of a temperature measured at 88.0° C?
The correct answer is D. To convert from Celsius to Kelvin scales, add 273.1.
4 / 15
In order to determine the density of an unknown liquid, you measure the mass of a known volume: mass = 34.9 g; volume = 25.0 ml. What is the density of the liquid?
The correct answer is D. Density is determined by dividing mass by volume. Because the volume and mass measurements are precise to three significant figures, the precision of the derived density value is limited to three significant figures.
5 / 15
How is the number 0.000340 correctly expressed in scientific notation?
C is the correct answer. The first part of a number in scientific notation is a number between 1 and 10. A move of four decimal places is indicated by the exponent -4. The final zero in a decimal number is a significant digit and must be retained in scientific notation.
6 / 15
Why is the concept of plate tectonics considered to be a theory?
B is the correct answer. A theory is an explanation that is supported by a body of experimental evidence from tested hypotheses. A theory is never proven to be true because it always includes falsifiable predictions. A lack of alternative theories has no bearing on whether or not an explanation is considered to be a theory.
7 / 15
What is the general formula for calculating the change in phenomena such as population growth and radioactive decay?
The correct answer is C. Population growth and radioactive decay are exponential functions in which the rate of change accelerates or decelerates with time. All of the other equation choices express linear relationships.
8 / 15
Which pair of variables could be used in an experiment to test the following hypothesis: "Weight gain is dependent on the amount of fat in a person's diet"?
B is the correct answer. The independent variable is the factor that is controlled by the experimenter, in this case, the amount of fat consumed. The dependent variable is the measured value that changes in response to the independent variable, in this case, change in weight. The experiment in choice D would measure the effect on weight of dietary calories, not the effect fat has in the diet.
9 / 15
Which equation is a simple, linear equation?
A is the correct answer. Linear equations, by definition, do not contain exponential relationships, eliminating choices B, C, and D.
10 / 15
Which of the following is the result of improper calibration of a measuring instrument?
B is the correct answer. Incorrect calibration causes inaccurate results because the values will not compare correctly with a known standard. Calibration does not affect the precision of instrument readings.
11 / 15
Which data must be included in the report of the results of an experiment?
The correct answer is C. Data that does not support the result, cannot be explained or does not "make sense" is valuable information for determining whether or not the hypothesis is supported. If a data point is the result of an explainable error, it should be included, with a explanation of the error.
12 / 15
What is the median of the following values? 33, 23, 23, 40, 22, 38, 24
The correct answer is C. The median is the middle value, for which half the values are higher and half are lower. Choice A is the range; choice B is the mode; and choice D is the mean.
13 / 15
Which of these statements describes a scientific hypothesis?
The correct answer is C. A hypothesis is a possible explanation that can be tested. Choice A is the description of a theory. Choice B describes a conclusion. Choice D describes a prediction.
14 / 15
What can you do if the results of an experiment does not support your prediction?
B is the correct answer. When an experiment does not support the predictions of a hypothesis, the new data should be incorporated into the hypothesis.
15 / 15
Which of the following terms is used to indicate a mass of 1,000,000 grams?
The correct answer is C. Values of the prefixes are: milli = 0.001; kilo = 1,000; mega = 1,000, 000; and giga = 1,000,000,000.
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