Professional Teaching Knowledge Content Standards
Topic 1: Selects, Organizes, Plans, and Designs Content
Writes measurable objectives for both individual or classroom performance based on student data and subject matter.
Guides curricular planning (e.g., content clusters, instructional methods, learning activities and assessment tools) based on goals of the instruction.
Organizes content across lessons around central concepts, propositions, theories, or models.
Selects facts, samples, examples or a combination to substantiate or illustrate ideas.
Juxtaposes examples that differ in many ways but are the same in defining features, so that students can generalize to new examples and learn to discriminate same/different when faced with new examples.
Plans lessons, depending on size and content of unit, so that important ideas or skills are studied or practiced on several occasions rather than all at once.
Selects lesson content that builds on prior learning.
Uses routines, presentations, practice, review, memorization, application and homework, as appropriate, to organize instruction into clearly defined segments.
Designs instruction that shows relationships among content and ideas and points out opportunities for transfer.
Knows about the ways to organize information for students, including:
Topic 1: Communicates Effectively
Stimulates student interest by connecting prior knowledge and students’ personal experience to larger concepts.
Explains how current lessons build upon previously learned knowledge and skills.
When introducing new concepts, previews major ideas or questions to be covered in the lesson to stimulate students’ thinking about topic.
States what will be taught in the lesson in the form of verbal associations, concepts, principles, or cognitive strategies.
States what sorts of changes he or she will be trying to foster in students’ knowledge in the lesson, e.g., increase accuracy, speed, generalization and application, assembling elements into larger wholes, retention, independence.
Topic 2: Provides Clear and Focused Instruction
Assesses students to decide where and how to begin instruction based on students’ prior knowledge and prerequisite skills.
Presents material in a logical sequence.
Presents new content in small steps.
Demonstrates the steps for defining concepts, applying rules, and solving problems.
Focuses on learning objectives without disrupting continuity by digressing.
Teaches vocabulary required for mastery of the subject matter.
Presents sufficient, varied, systematic examples, non-examples, problems, or materials in order for students to master critical concepts. So students grasp relationships, make predictions, debate alternative approaches to problems, or otherwise consider the content’s implications or applications.
Determines that students have mastered material in lesson before introducing new idea.
Identifies mistake patterns or knowledge gaps in student responses.
Systematically reduces or withdraws assistance as students become proficient.
Utilizes metaphors and analogies to communicate key ideas.
Provides frequent and varied opportunities for students to practice new skills, apply new knowledge, or both.
Provides students with ample opportunities to solve similar problems.
Uses both examples and non-examples, (e.g., of concepts) so those students can induce the defining features.
Provides opportunities for students to actively participate through questions, share task-related observations or experiences, compare opinions to deepen their appreciation of what they have learned and how it relates to their lives outside school.
Provides opportunities for students to explain in their own words how individual elements are connected in a network of related content and connect it (the new content) to their prior knowledge.
Provides closure to lesson (e.g., reviewing main points, stressing concepts, and previewing next lesson).
Knows the different purposes of various instructional methods and how and when to use them, including whole class, cooperative, small group, and tutoring.
When using whole class instruction, implements its design principles by:
When using small-groups, implements principles of design by:
Holds members of cooperative work groups or small groups individually responsible for performance.
Topic 3: Uses Effective Questioning Techniques
Suits questions to the knowledge and skill of students.
Uses factual and higher order questions to further student learning.
Uses open-ended higher-cognitive questions that call for students to apply, analyze, synthesize or evaluate what they are learning.
Provides appropriate wait-time when asking higher order questions.
Promotes discussion on a range of possible correct answers.
Requires students to clarify or justify their assertions to improve the quality of student responses.
When asking questions with a short and specific correct answer, orchestrates chorale responses to involve all students (e.g., reading word lists, memorizing facts, practicing pronunciation in foreign language).
Topic 4: Makes Efficient Use of Learning Time
Paces the lesson to allow time to develop the most important content in greater depth and according to its difficulty.
Arranges schedule to maximize engagement of all students (e.g., teacher-directed, independent work, group work).
Knows the differences among uses of time: time allocated to the lesson, the time students are actually engaged in learning, and the time students are effectively learning the key objectives.
Arranges classroom space to ensure monitoring of all students’ engagement.
Extends learning through homework assignments that are relevant to the lessons being learned.
Extends learning time through homework that is appropriate in length and difficulty.
Topic 5: Builds Students’ Study Skills
Instructs students about when and how to use study skills such as:
Topic 1. Establishes Smooth, Efficient Classroom Routines
Develops and teaches clear class rules during the first week of school.
Enforces rules and re-teaches as necessary.
Designs and establishes procedures and routines for classroom activities prior to the beginning of the school year, e.g., lining up, attendance, lunch, passing out papers, pencil sharpening, restroom, entry and exit, tardiness, hall passes, attention signal.
Presents clear expectations concerning classroom behavior.
Presents expectations regarding participation in lessons and learning activities such as teacher-directed instruction, cooperative learning and independent work (class work and homework).
Enforces expectations about classroom behavior in a consistent manner.
Begins each class promptly and purposefully.
Avoids unnecessary delays and pauses during lessons such as stopping to consult a manual or locate an item needed for display or demonstration.
Teaches students procedures for carrying out recurring instructional activities, e.g.,
Provides explicit instruction (e.g., modeling and practice — about listening, sharing, and integrating the ideas of others and handling disagreements constructively).
Encourage student effort by focusing on the positive aspects of students’ performance.
Topic 2: Sets Clear Standards for Classroom Conduct and Applies Them Fairly and Consistently
Establishes clear standards of conduct that students are required to meet.
Arranges classroom so teachers can gain proximity to all students.
Provides positive feedback that is specific, descriptive, accurate, and meaningful.
Selects from a repertoire of correction techniques for early stage misbehavior (i.e. non-chronic), such as:
Implements corrective techniques for common rule violations, such as:
Determines educational reasons for chronic student misbehavior.
Once the educational reason for the misbehavior is known, designs plan to help meet students’ needs in positive ways.
Chooses corrective techniques for chronic misbehavior and implements them calmly, consistently, immediately, and respectfully.
Topic 3. Routinely Provides Students Feedback and Reinforcement Regarding Their Learning Progress
Indicates approval for correct responses.
Follows correct answers with new questions to maintain momentum.
When students are correct but uncertain, asks students clarifying questions to ensure understanding.
When students give incorrect responses, gives immediate corrective feedback depending on the type of student mistake made (whether by mistake of fact, concept, or rule) including:
Provides consequences on homework that helps students assess their progress with respect to goals and to understand and correct errors or misconceptions.
Informs students of what they need to do to earn recognition or rewards.
Provides incentives to students.
Provides feedback that is meaningful (e.g., specific, accurate, and important).
Avoids embarrassing, insulting, or demeaning students when providing feedback.
Topic 4. Expects Students to Learn
Holds high achievement expectations for student learning.
Communicates to students the measurements and criteria for attaining learning objectives.
Sets goals for meeting standards, gains in learning, or both.
Holds all students accountable for participating in learning activities and attaining goals.
Holds all students accountable for completing high quality work (class work or homework).
Teaches that effort is necessary for success in attaining rigorous standards.
Topic 5: Involves Parents and Guardians in Supporting the Instructional Program
Involves parents and guardians in monitoring their child’s academic progress and homework.
Alerts parents and guardians to the educational benefits of leisure reading.
Informs parents and guardians of child’s assessment results and progress.
Topic 1: Monitors Student Progress Closely
Aligns assessments to taught objectives and lesson content.
Uses ongoing assessment to monitor and guide student learning aligned with curriculum goals.
Monitors procedures to check on student progress:
Uses information from assessments to evaluate student progress and inform instructional planning to do the following:
Topic 2. Understands Testing Concepts
Understands the purpose and use of educational tests (e.g., norm referenced, criterion referenced, performance assessments, and portfolios).
Understands the purposes and uses of different item types (e.g., multiple-choice, constructed response format).
Can apply general testing concepts (e.g., reliability, validity and standard error of measurement).
Understands and uses general statistical concepts (e.g., mean, mode, median and standard deviation).
Understands and uses common assessment terminology to interpret test results (e.g., the differences between percentage and percentile; aggregated and disaggregated data; norm-referenced score and criterion-referenced score; achievement and aptitude tests) to teaching and diagnosing student performance.
Topic 3: Gives High-Needs Students Extra Time and Instruction They Need to Succeed
Develops plans to accommodate students’ special needs.
Provides struggling students with extra time, instruction and encouragement.
Seeks expertise and help from other professionals when individual students require special provisions.