Comparative Physiology Chapter Quiz
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Which of the following is used to trace the embryonic development of an organism's cells?
The correct answer is A. The chart of which cells will become which tissue is called a fate map. DNA fingerprint refers to the several different methods of cutting, amplifying, and tagging DNA markers. A lineage map is used to trace the ancestry of individuals. Phylogenetic tree refers to the evolutionary relationships between different phyla.
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Carrot cells placed into a growth medium will grow into a complete carrot because the cells are
C is the correct answer. Totipotent cells are capable of becoming any kind of tissue. The cells in a carrot are not identical. Multipotent cells are limited, capable only of becoming one of a narrow class of tissues. Pluripotent cells are capable of becoming one of wide variety of cells, but not any tissue.
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The homeobox is a sequence of 180 nucleotides found in the genes of many different animals. What is this evidence of?
The correct answer is C. The homeobox sequence is thought to have derived from a common ancestor far back in evolutionary history. This sequence encodes proteins that are able to bind DNA. Convergent evolution produces analogous phenotypes, not identical genotypes. Divergent evolution refers to similar genes diverging to perform different functions. Cell differentiation refers to the process of cells acquiring a type. A cell may change, yet it retains its genetic material.
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How does a gastrovascular cavity differ from an alimentary canal?
The correct answer is B. The gastrovascular cavity has only one opening, used for both ingestion and secretion. Neither the gastrovascular cavity nor the alimentary canal store food. Both structures function in digestion.
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Which of the following is a characteristic shared by all animals?
A is the correct answer. All eukaryotic cells store the genetic material in a nucleus surrounded by a membrane. This is where DNA transcription and RNA processing occur. Animal cells have membranes, but nothing like the cell wall of a plant cell. RNA processing happens in the nucleus of eukaryotes. Only bacterial cells contain operons.
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